The Fall of the Wall
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Ten-point programme to overcome the separation of Germany and Europe, presented by the Federal Chancellor Helmut Kohl in the German Lower House of Parliament on 28th November 1989:
... The way to German reunification as we all know cannot be planned at a "drawing board" or with a diary in ones hand. It may be possible to use abstract models in a controversial manner, but they do not get us any further. But we are able to, if only we are willing to prepare those stages today which will one day lead to this objective. I would like to elucidate these objectives on the basis of a ten-point programme:
Point one: Initially, emergency measures are necessary which are the result of the events of the last few weeks, in particular caused by the flight of the refugees and the new dimension of transit travel. The Federal Government is willing to provide immediate practical assistance in those areas where this assistance is now required. We will help in the humanitarian sector and also in the field of medical supplies, as far as this is requested and practical. We also know that the welcome fee which we pay to each visitor from the GDR once every year cannot be the solution of financing journeys. In the final instance, the GDR will have to supply its travellers with the necessary foreign currency... it is and remains our objective to maintain as unrestricted travel in both directions as possible.
Point two: The Federal Government will continue the co-operation with the GDR in all areas which will profit the people on both sides of the border directly. This applies in particular to the economic, scientific, technological and cultural co-operation. A particularly important aspect is an intensification of the co-operation in the sector of environmental protection. Here, new projects can be decided in the near future whatever direction the other developments may take.

The same applies to a soonest extensive expansion of the long-distance telephone network with the GDR and the telephone network of the GDR itself - the Minister for the Federal Post has already initiated corresponding discussions. Further negotiations are being carried out regarding the expansion of the railway line between Hanover and Berlin... There is no reason why the classic route Moscow-Warsaw- Berlin-Paris which has always gone through Cologne and has always been of great importance should not be re-introduced in the era of fast trains and at the dawn of a corresponding European railway network.
Point three: I have offered to expand our comprehensive assistance and co-operation, if the GDR makes a binding decision in favour of a fundamental change of the political and economic system and this is put irrevocably into practice. For us, and especially for me, "irrevocable" means that the government of the GDR agree a change of the constitution and a new election law with the opposition groups. We support the demand for free, equal and secret elections in the GDR under participation of independent, in other words of course including non-socialist parties. The monopoly of power of the SED must be abolished. The demanded introduction of constitutional conditions includes in particular the abolishment of the political criminal law and as a logical consequence the immediate release of all political prisoners. Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen, economic assistance can only come into effect, if fundamental reforms of the economic system are implemented. The experiences with all COMECON states have shown this, it has nothing to do with lectures from our side. The bureaucratic centrally managed economy needs to be abolished. We do not wish to stabilise conditions which have become untenable.

We know: There can only be an economic upsurge, if the GDR opens its doors to Western investments, if it creates market economy conditions and allows private economy activities.
I fail to understand anyone who speaks of patronising behaviour on our part in this context...
Point four: In his government speech President Modrow spoke of a contractual association. We are willing to pick up this concept as the closeness and the special character of the relationship between the two states in Germany require an increasingly dense network of agreements in all areas and on all levels. This co-operation will increasingly also require joint institutions. Existing commissions could be given new tasks, new commissions can be established. In this context, I think in particular of the fields of economy, traffic, environmental protection, science and technology, health and culture. I do not have to emphasise that as far as we are concerned Berlin will have to be fully incorporated in anything which must be done now and in the future. That has been, is and will remain our policy.
Point five: However, we are also prepared to go a significant step further namely to develop confederate structures between the two states in Germany with the objective of creating a federal order in Germany. This however imperatively necessitates a democratically legitimised government in the GDR... Nobody can say today how a reunified Germany will look in the end. I am absolutely certain however that unification will come, if the people in Germany really want it.
Point six: The development of the inner-German relations remain embedded in the pan-European process, in other words always also in the West East relations. The future architecture of Germany will have to fit into the future architecture of the whole of Europe. To this end, the West has supplied pacemaker services with its concept of a permanent and just European peace order...

Point seven: The magnetic and radiating force of the European Community is and remains a deciding constant factor of the pan-European development. We want and will have to reinforce it further...
Point eight: The CSCE process is a core process of this pan-European architecture. We intend to drive it forward...
Point nine: Overcoming the separation of Europe and the splitting of Germany requires extensive and rapid steps in the fields of disarmament and armament control. Disarmament and armament control need to keep pace with the political development and must be accelerated if necessary...
Point ten: We will use this comprehensive policy to work towards a state of peace in Europe in which the German people can regain its unification in free self-determination. Reunification, in other words, the reinstatement of the unity of Germany remains the political objective of the Federal Government...
Ladies and Gentlemen, we are aware of the fact that there are many difficult issues facing us on the way to German unity for which nobody can give a final and correct answer at this moment in time. This includes in particular, and I emphasise this point, the difficult as well as deciding question of cross-border safety structures in Europe. Linking the German issue with the pan-European development and the West East relations as I have just explained in ten points allows a naturally growing development which takes the interests of all participants into account and this is our objective of the paving of a way towards a peaceful and free development in Europe. We will only be able to overcome the separation of Europe which always signifies the separation of Germany in peace if we create a climate of mutual trust.

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